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Furthermore, Baguley contends that the divorce between reality and utopia in Travail results in a pure discourse: "La veritable utopie de Zola ne consiste peut-etre pas a avoir construit une societe ideale sans dissidence et conflit, mais a avoir elabore un pur discours, sans denotation precise, libere de la representation d'une realite que, beatement, il evacue" "Du recit" I will claim in this paper that rather than constructing "un pur discours" without any anchoring in the real, Zola's Travail reflects larger social and economic trends underlying the World's Fair of At first, I will draw a parallel between the technological objects of the Exposition Universelle and those of Beauclair, Luc Froment's anarchic commune whose description and functioning are the subject of the third book of the novel.

Far from a gratuitous exercise, these details posit a solution to entropic decay while at the same rime rehearsing a new subjective relationship to the real--one of passive spectator--common to the World's Fair and utopian writing in general. Thus, the narrative coordinates of time and space cease to function in Zola's novel echoing the experience of visitors to the amusement rides popular during the Exposition Universelle.

Finally, I will argue that the evolution in Zola's oesthetic practices from a naturalist to a utopian mode--a shift already perceptible in some of the Rougon-Macquart novels and especially in the Trois Villes series--reflects the changing role of the World's Fair in fin-de-siecle France from one of social criticism to one of entertainment and conspicuous consumption.

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If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Probablement pas. They are burdened with very weighty pasts. Full text and French version below. But they also warn that in joining the fray, these elderly and divisive figures could further fragment and undermine the Syrian opposition. But their decision to speak out could mark a turning point, coming as the Arab League votes to suspend Syria, King Abdullah of neighbouring Jordan calls on Assad to stand down and opposition forces step up armed attacks. Khaddam was a long term ally of Hafez al-Assad, serving as his foreign minister, deputy prime minister and vice president, and was a leading figure in the ruling Baath Party, one of the pillars of the regime, until He is accused of overseeing the massacre of between 10, and 25, civilians in the town of Hama.

As former regime apparatchiks, both men have little credibility with the larger opposition movements that are attempting to direct the revolution. A la mi-novembre, la situation semble toujours aussi confuse et inextricable. A quoi attribuez-vous cela? Ils ne se limitent pas au Venezuela de Chavez. La population panique. Il est paru le 4 octobre :. Plus de 2. After a long blogging hiatus, I have decided to reopen this blog and use it to archive my articles, quotes and interviews.

Does the Arab spring need a bill of rights? Urgently needed now is a bill of rights to guarantee freedom for all, regardless of creed or politics.

Related books and articles

In less than a year, the Arab Spring swept through the Middle East with a speed both historic and breathtaking. Arab youths lost their fear and apathy and went out on the streets. Three dynasties or dictatorships have crumbled. Bashar al-Assad of Syria is at a precarious moment. After decades of secular rule by autocrats, millions of Arabs are eager to give Islam fuller expression in their lives and their governments. But that desire worries secularists, minorities, and more moderate Muslims, who constitute as much as 30 to 40 percent of the citizenry in some countries and seek concrete guarantees of rights in a coming year of Arab constitution-writing.

Now the new constitution of one of the most educated, secular Arab states will be shaped in a politically religious context. As the Arab Spring enters this new phase, something is urgently missing — an element needed to define the Arab Spring as more than a series of uprisings, says a growing chorus of expatriate Arab intellectuals.

If this is not a fight for values, then it is not a revolution. It is just a series of uprisings. If it is a fight over values, you put it in writing. What is needed to consecrate the Arab Spring as a real revolution is a declaration of rights as witnessed in the French Revolution.

Daniel Bensaid: On the return of the politico-strategic question (August )

In a region chockablock with minorities, and with no autocrats to ensure stability, what such documents need are unequivocal guarantees of equality for all citizens, regardless of race or creed. Evidence of the need for minority protection in the Middle East is already coming thick and fast: This month — eight months after the Arab Spring — 27 Coptic Christians were killed when Egyptian tanks rolled into a crowd of protesters.

Yet there is little accountability in Cairo for the massacre of peaceful protesters, part of which was caught on YouTube. Basic questions are unanswered: Will women be allowed positions of leadership? Will full participation by non-Muslims in politics, public office, and courts be assured? In states like Syria, with a plethora of minority groups and intra-Muslim divides, if change comes, will all Islamic family members receive full rights? In post-Muammar Qaddafi Libya, interim leaders now say they have adopted sharia as the main source of law — a common formulation in Islamic governments, which is open to a wide range of interpretation.

As part of this, Libyan leader Mustafa Abdul Jalil said, marriage laws would be changed to allow polygamy. Bit by bit if the sharia is institutionalized, we will see an elite corps with a privileged standing making rules. As a historic event, the Arab Spring has been compared to and the fall of the Berlin Wall. Yet the overthrow of the Soviet Union was achieved through years of disciplined dissident opposition and the eventual rotting of the Soviet economy.

The Arab revolts, by contrast, have seemed in some ways too easy. So this … makes me maybe not skeptical but makes me ask, What are the foundations of this? So far the issue is raised mostly by expatriate Arab intellectuals, opposition groups, Egyptian writers and circles around presidential candidate Mohammed ElBaradei, and other artists and academics who want modern constitutional guarantees without making them sound like ideas imposed by the West.

This summer brought a tussle between two Syrian opposition groups over basic issues: The National Council for Coordination of Democratic Change in Damascus insisted on a declaration of rights that included separation of religion and state and other basic rights to be agreed on before the regime topples.

They dismissed the separation idea and bill of rights as matters to be worked out later. The push for a modern bill of rights is complicated by years of autocrats suppressing the state mechanisms necessary to enforce such rights — courts, schools, police, and so on. But a more significant issue may be an underlying struggle between secularists and Gulf nations already funding the Islamic faithful. Al Nahda had by some counts more than local groups, many of which reportedly received Gulf funding. With Europe in debt crisis, that assistance is seen as more likely to come from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Cooperation Council, a local economic bloc.

Worried about budding protests of its own earlier this year, Saudi Arabia distributed tens of billions of dollars in aid to its youth, and calm has prevailed. But Gulf funds to support Islamist groups in other parts of the Middle East come with a tacit understanding not only of the authority of Mecca and Medina in matters of Islam — the Saudi cities are considered the two holiest in the world — but also an intent to spread its more orthodox Wahhabi version of the faith. After the Oct. The army that Kadhafi inherited from King Idriss, when he overthrew the monarchy in a bloodless coup in , was not insignificant — Libya had been involved in a border conflict with Sudan and Chad from The materiel is stored in a still uncounted number of bases around the country, most of them dating from the early years.

One of those bases is in Hun, in the Jufra oasis, about kilometres miles southeast of Tripoli. None of them take off any more. Their fuselages are crumbling, jet engines and propellers rusted, cockpit windows almost opaque from the effects of ultraviolet light. Nearby is a stockpile of Russian armoured vehicles, around of them, which was attacked by NATO warplanes.

Again, the ageing T55 tanks and BMP-1 troop carriers are mostly rusted, apparently not having moved in years. After the euphoria of the s, money began to grow tight. Then Libya was hit with a first set of international sanctions in over its interference in neighbouring countries. A second set of of sanctions was imposed after Libya was blamed for the downing of a Pan Am jumbo jet over the Scottish town of Lockerbie, killing people on the plane, mainly Americans, and 11 on the ground. In late , Kadhafi renounced all attempts to develop a non-conventional arsenal, paving the way for a lifting of sanctions.

Despite that, the regime bought little new materiel — some Russian T tanks, and some Russian and French missiles. Kadhafi had hundreds of thousands of tonnes of munitions, some of it obsolete but still dangerous, which should have been more than sufficient to fend off the initially amateurish and under-equipped rebels.

Elnari worked in a communications centre hidden in a massive nuclear bunker that was attacked by NATO. Version espagnole parue sur Univison. Pese al levantamiento de las sanciones, a finales de , los nuevos equipamientos militares son escasos: algunos tanques T rusos, misiles rusos y franceses…. Suficiente para contrarrestar el amateurismo de unos rebeldes infraequipados.

Le Point. La Ligue arabe a-t-elle perdu la face? Le pays peut-il finir par imploser? Ces menaces laissent Bachar el-Assad de marbre. From Madrid to Athens, young people facing a bleak future are casting doubt on European identity. Occupy Europe? The most significant current youth movement in Europe started with a tweet on Justin Bieber, the boyish Canadian crooner. Spain, like Greece and Italy, faces huge public deficits.

The government has been cutting outlays for basic services like schools, health care, and social welfare. While college attendance in Spain is a success story, youth unemployment has risen to a horrific 44 percent. So on Puerta del Sol square, the kids were hashing it out. They wanted to bed down on the square, but the police had other ideas. About 4 a. A month before, students had slept there to buy tickets to a Bieber concert. The tweet distilled perfectly frustrations among youth that Europe, Spain, their politicians, the banks, the system, their lives — all are in trouble and need to change.

The Zapatero government, like governments across Europe, hews to a neoliberal model that stresses cutting deficits and using taxes to shore up banks. But it has said little about how to spur growth. Austerity is seen as the predominant answer to spiraling debt costs. But this offers no solace to an educated but unemployed generation that says it wants both work and meaning in life. Yet some Rubicon was crossed on May A Twitter call brought hundreds of youth to the square.

The next day more than 1, came. By the end of the week 30, people, most of them young, had organized a system of tent camps, started seminars and teach-ins, and begun building a social networking site. Their moniker became indignados, or the outraged. Today, their idea has spread across southern Europe to Rome and Athens and the far corners of Spanish cyberspace, where the group has 70, participants.

They are part of an increasingly global movement of young people that, while not directly connected, share some of the same frustrations over the inability of economies to create jobs, and the indifference of politicians or their impotence to do anything about it. The youth of Puerta del Sol have taken some of their inspiration from the youth of the Arab Spring. Yet each of these revolts is also rooted in its own grievances, with consequences that will be similarly singular.

The most common word they used to describe their lives: complicated. Yes, they want jobs. Of course. Guillermo Ubieto, age 27, graduated with an advanced degree in international relations. Ubieto says. They told us study, push yourselves, you can have a good future. Now we are saying something. Yet the Puerta del Sol protest was about a lot more than jobs. Something more fundamental was at work. It was time to stop accepting the verdict of a diminished life. But the issues being raised seem bigger than any solutions. As the indignados see it, their extremity has forced questions about what it means to be human; what values and truths to accept; how people should be treated; how democracy should work; the role of free markets, money, the social contract, community.

And whether the indignados can survive they still fill the square on Sunday evenings is unclear. But their pluck brought public sympathy in Spain and Greece, and they are seen as a bellwether among analysts: Europe and its nations have a debt crisis that is testing its unity and economics. But the youth protests point to an equally important crisis — of meaning, and of what kind of spirit the age will usher in. But after Tunisia and Egypt, I could see what the Spanish kids were doing.

Young Europeans for decades have identified with a historic joining of the Continent. They identified strongly with postwar visions: a high-minded model of civil society, ideals of justice, a robust monetary union, and a confident zone of business dealings and corporations that set global management standards. Author Jeremy Rifkin in saw Europe as the path to the future.

Europe seemed a dazzling model of social cohesion — wealthy, sustainable, green, and mostly postnational. The ghosts of Auschwitz were fading. Democratic values were ascendant, borders were falling, and old animosities were evaporating. Indeed, Europe was a cause, and with its enlightened youth, was preparing to lead the way. The Bosnian war was an early reality check on how prepared Europe was to sacrifice in the name of its values.

A war crimes tribunal at The Hague, the first since Nuremberg, prosecuted hundreds of officers and soldiers from those wars. Yet the European dream is suddenly in question. Unders have more doubt than optimism. It is the first generation since the s that feels few thrills about a Europe project. The nation eurozone is debt-ridden. Ugly splits are manifest between northern- and southern-tier states. The cohesion brought by a Franco-German relationship bent on keeping Europe whole and vibrant has frayed or become exhausted.

But today I am not satisfied…. Spain and Italy are not out of the red-ink woods. Youth riots in London this summer may have been a singular, compulsive event, but they hold a warning. Anciently in Madrid, Puerta del Sol is where all roads led out to Europe. But until May 15, it was not a place of political symbolism, not a Tiananmen Square of Spain.

Today their numbers and energy are still strong, though their focus is more diffuse. On Sept. All polls show a wide feeling among youth that the political class and elites are a problem. Affordable housing is in short supply, rents are expensive, and for many, getting a home loan seems as likely as changing the rings of Saturn. Without a work contract, it is often hard to sign a lease. Moving from flat to flat takes a toll, and living at home puts a strain on families. Nadera is a young French Arab, With black hair pulled back and fine features, she has a slightly glamorous look that belies her status as a member of the generation who works seasonal jobs for cash.

She comes from a family of nine. She left home at 14 and has held numerous jobs. One was caring for the handicapped, and she would like to one day own a home-care business; helping others is an ideal of hers. Little things cost a lot for this generation: phones, train tickets, food. Twenty-five-year-olds compete with year-olds for work. The irrepressible desire to understand each other suffices to start a dialogue between minds, from one century to another, despite cultural distances.

This conversation begins between two people, the artist and his admirer.

Haïti : le capitalisme des paramilitaires

But it can also involve three, a hundred, without limits. Quietly, my father knew how to invite me in his dance with his masters. Far from diluting in number, the exchange gained in intensity as was added a woman loved, another male friend, a child, or whoever was capable in their lives of allowing a place for their troubles and for the doubts of others. Hence the wave of new collectors of emotion swelled before my eyes. What do you see? What do you feel? What do you think? I initially address these questions to myself. But I only know how to respond when accompanied. Sometimes, the artist is there, often open, sometimes demanding, to guide me to his oeuvre.

Art dealers can help, so long as they go beyond their role of paid intermediary. Fabienne Leclerc and Claudine Papillon know how much I owe them: the first step. They taught me to roam, encouraged me in my inclination so that I may progress from doubt to doubt, rather than from one certainty to.

Bram Van Velde Sans titre, , huile sur toile, x 81 cm. Untitled, , oil on canvas, Die Ungeborenen, , oil paint, emulsion, shellac and soil on board, Gregor Hildebrandt Und ihr ginget selbdritt durch den Abend P. Und ihr ginget selbdritt durch den Abend P. Celan , , cassette tape, dispersion and gloss paint on canvas, triptych , Pour commencer! Ce sont. Thanks to them and to a handful of others, I allowed myself to make mistakes with regard to the art world. This book, quite obviously, aims to widen even further the circle of discovery and discussion.

It has been conceived as the first stone of a Foundation that will be vast without being monumental, sufficiently welcoming in its architecture to invite the shyest, most fragile and most distanced from art to discover the works that accompany me — and so many others. A collector of exchanges, I await the day when we will see these works together, will feel together, think together. In my dreams, I see arriving Emerige engineers, architects, sales and marketing people, close and more distant partners who all give a part of themselves to this shared project.

To begin! It suffices to provide planks and trestles to extend the table. Of course, France does not lack museums. Art is already exhibited here in public places and, fortunately more and more, also in private places. I nevertheless consider it necessary to open a house where French post-war creation could host the banquet. They will invite each other and the creative artists they wish to invite, beyond borders, with honesty as their only passport. When I turn towards the artworks that have moved me to the point that I wished, when possible, to keep them nearby or to offer them to the gaze of the women and men who make up Emerige, I can distinguish a shared mental territory: this French culture widened to the dimensions of the horizon.

They are not hemmed in by identity or labels guaranteeing their origin issued by who knows what squad of customs officers but nevertheless are bearers of a specific genius. For thirty years, France has experienced a phase of existential obscurity, like the country has known so often in its political and cultural history, between two luminous and conquering periods. It is time, now or never, to support our artists, to offer them generosity and to say — more concretely than with words — that they are part of a heritage and as such deserve a home and hearth and a showcase to shelter their work and to make it known to the world.

Anselm Kiefer, whose magisterial constellation of The Unborn had to be embedded in a wall of the family lounge, reminds me each day of the fragility of existence. Giacometti imposes it, forcing us to stand up to cope with the height of the intensity of his fixed gaze. Above my work table, the gigantic wave by Gregor Hildebrandt, which electrifies me, comes from Germany. For all that, France is not a no-go zone. In the name of what imposed nostalgia should I only admire my dead and buried compatriots, rush to exhibitions devoted to Philip Guston and Gerhard Richter, but snob Bruno Perramant and all the artists whose great flaw is that they were born after Renoir and Manet?

I come from a country, I grew up and work in it. But, being French means seeing Syracuse and remembering it in Paris. My opening up to the world takes me far, very far, as far as France. Life — my life — is too short to deprive myself of. Chartres, , oil on canvas, Untitled, , ink wash on paper, Bruno Perramant Le Sophiste, , huile sur toile triptyque , x cm chaque. Le Sophiste, , oil on canvas triptych , each Avec respect, nous vieillirons ensemble et nous retrouverons toujours. There are these artists whom I wanted to transform into another family, by accompanying them with confidence in their quest, over a long period, without holding missed opportunities against them because I am certain that our bonds cannot be broken.

With respect, we will grow old together and will always rediscover each other. If this book can allow me to share this tender and curious gaze on the treasures of France, those that the country addresses to the world after having received so much, I will have done useful work. The art that has filled my time, my space, my life, did not impose itself naturally. A Parisian, raised in a privileged environment, I initially perceived artworks as a decoration and, sometimes, as a tool for social distinction.

The experience of art came to me later: a line thrown out to me and grabbed through trials and tests. For a man of action, establishing a relationship of trust with an artist is a perilous exercise, but this invitation to doubt transforms whoever risks it. An artwork cracks open rock-solid certainties, accompanies life-changing events and can even provoke them. However, the best inspirations emanate from my exchanges with artists. Because I was so lucky to experience this first salutary shock, I wish to share it as closely as possible, with those dear to me and beyond, consistent with the means which, with Emerige, I can mobilise.

This passing on, this sharing is a responsibility that I have no wish to avoid. Moreover, why renounce it, because he who can invite people to the banquet of creativity receives in return as a gift the unfettered imaginations of. Children who discover Versailles, on a holiday outing, stock up on powerful sensations and bring the desire to transform their lives back to La Courneuve or Vitry-sur-Seine.

In the architecture conceived by Rafael Aranda, Carme Pigem and Ramon Vilalta, a hand held out is neither ornamental nor even uniquely symbolic. It is the main element, that from which everything proceeds because the building itself will be an invitation. Each year, beyond my own personal tastes, I capture the wave of all these young creators, then I try, particularly in my professional environment, to look at the world through their prism. With impressive daring, they transform reality in order to fabricate another one from it, radically new in its form and its intention.

This singular approach extends my horizon, sharpens my gaze, provokes unexpected connections. In an activity unavoidably governed by technology and finance, this addiction to other lives than our own is a treasure. The artworks that I am preparing to soon reveal, like the works by these young artists, will not necessarily please everyone.

I will be more useful if I could already, to escape repetition and to imagine our future, convey the little dose of fantasy that I owe to works of art. In the skip of a heartbeat. By Yannick Haenel Here is a collection of artworks: paintings, drawings, sculptures, objects, installations; everything is mixed up, combined, multiplied to the point that boundaries are erased and that each work, benefitting from its neighbour, seems painted, drawn, sculpted and installed all at once. Surfaces are volumes, reliefs deepen, colours reveal forms: a whole world rushes to me and grabs hold of my nerves.

Emotions light up: it is a swirling that vibrates. Here I am passing from one work to another, I look, I linger, I contemplate, I examine; very quickly I become obsessed by twenty of them, they become my favourites: I think of them like a lover, I have to see them again; so each day I come back, and the rite starts over: I look at them, I linger, I contemplate, I examine.

When we invoke a name, it unlocks and brings us close to the fire bringing. What have we done to our heads for them to be veiled? The human race searches for its colours in the middle of a world of ghosts. This black and white, which refers to the ignominy of images from the past, which imparts it with archival value, opens up a glaring gallery in the middle of the torpor that enslaves us that bleaches the terror. Super Girl, , pigment print, mounted on Dibond, Untitled, , scalpel blades, CNC-machined polyurethane, 3D-printed nylon and graphite, Portrait de Garance 21, , charcoal and graphite on paper, 59 x Ce rouge de sang clair conjure le crime du monde.

Le feu existe : je ne sais rien, mais cela je le sais. Une soif me porte vers des surfaces. To constantly return to painting, to the art of images — and hence to turn away from the flow of images in which we drown — is to rediscover colours. Suddenly, it is the opposite of a Medusa that looks at you, it provokes the opposite of tetany. This bright blood red wards off the crime of the world. Yes, the world is painted in splendid colours, while the bodies that inhabit it are insipid, colourless, dull, gnawed at by insignificance: the gestures of the painter or photographer consist of repopulating the world with colours — of awakening what the renouncing of desires aligned to servile interests has instigated on a planetary scale: a non-world.

By rushing from their death to our death, they will create a possibility for colour to reignite. Fire exists: I know nothing, but this I know. This sacrificial act, by profaning the world, destines it to a sacred horror. This is what we live, in the interval of a heartbeat:. Open wide your eyes before blindness levels out and dissolves colours, and before all we can make out is a single puddle of blackish mud in which we slide and which, little by little, will absorb us. I see flaming heads here. I see, in this collection of artworks, incredible cerebral operations, icebergs of faces gazing towards our reawakening.

What I like in a work is the lightning it contains — the lightning it transmits. A thirst carries me towards the surfaces where painting opens up, better than the world, to the abysses that meteors gather; where another sky is invented instead of the one hanging about over our heads: a sky constellated with fire, ashes, flickering forests, and whose light will be sufficiently intense to irradiate my entire life, and yours.

Composition 3 pieces , , gouache and watercolour on paper, 8. Le Philosophe corse et ses amis, , assemblage, stones and ivory skulls, I love everything that is written, I have a passion for paper, for the signs that run across the white page. The fire is black: it kindles sparks on a white fire.

What lights up comes from the depths of time. And what is revealed through such a collection, and what I wish to call truth, stems less from reality than from its fire: there is an explosion of light at the heart of what we believe we live; this explosion is imperceptible; what burns is retained beneath the crust of reality; artists access it. If we finally managed to live according to this fire, our lives would rise up.

This is the absolute meaning of art: to indicate this freedom. Life is only alive on the condition that within it truth is freed. Not only do humanoids submit to their own obscurity, but, in the end, it would seem they like it. Yannick Haenel is a writer and co-founder of the literary review Ligne de risque. French spirit? An even shorter time ago, these same critics discovered that in their own country there existed artists who also developed rather strange stories, a little dicey, lost in complex elaborations.

The East Coast then opened its doors to West Coast artists. New York at last discovered Mike Kelley and his Californian friends, and admitted that it was too simplistic to confine cultures within stupid and reductive principles of identity. Defining a national spirit is an ambiguous exercise. By asserting that Futurism was born and continued to develop in the Italian Risorgimento, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti confined his movement within a nationalist ideology that would unfortunately end decked out in the tatters of fascism.

This freedom to contradict oneself allowed Dada to avoid the confinement of its thought in a dogma and to hence appear as a paragon of the avant-garde, when Futurism had preceded it in terms of madness and creativity. Defining a national spirit is lastly a trap because, above all else, it is the expression of a critical context. It is the spirit of the times and adheres to trends, which in fact define what we want to or must think about art and artists. Our political and social environment dictates what we want to say about.

To speak of a French spirit in would hence not have the same meaning as in the s, s or s. It was difficult, at first glance, to find a coherency, even though the exhibition was fascinating. The Incoherents remain the most famous of these groups. They owed their success to a series of exhibitions and charity balls organised between and Their events very quickly became the pretext to dismantle the art of their time.

They poked fun at every position, played with breaking down barriers between forms and aesthetic sources.

Le langage emprunte plusieurs chemins buissonniers. Zipette, Troulala. Well ahead of their time, these compositions were painted on supports coming from everyday life: a skimming ladle, a shirt, saveloys with garlic, emery paper, a broom, even a live horse painted in blue, white and red. Sometimes the canvas was ignored and only the frame was painted on. Here we see emerge a form of thought based on extravagance, humour, caricature and wordplay of which the artist and theoretician Arnaud Labelle-Rojoux is today the most worthy representative.

In an almost similar logic, Raymond Roussel invented literary tableaux as absurd as they were unbridled. We know the influence he exerted over Marcel Duchamp; it is even said that the birth of the ready-made would have been inspired by the twisted use of objects such as they appeared in the theatrical performances of Impressions of Africa. Even though Duchamp sometimes gave in to ribald metaphors L. Both from the provincial bourgeoisie, born respectively in and , they grew up distorting the meaning of words.

Morellet does so to upset the too rational contingencies of geometric. We can find this spirit in the Oulipo group or in the cinema of Jacques Rozier, with, in particular, the magnificent Maine Ocean , a film in which the protagonists seem not to understand each other. The language takes several wayward paths. Kiki Picasso, a founding member of the Bazooka art collective, draws from his talent as a critical and ironic illustrator to undermine the values of his time. His huge installation, composed of twenty paintings, shown at La Maison Rouge is a perfect reflection of this.

With this work, Kiki Picasso kills off most of the icons of French popular culture, starting with footballer Zinedine Zidane. Here it is chauvinism which is damaged, the patriotic and jingoistic spirit, through its three emblematic colours that we find in most of the paintings. It is true that he defines himself above all as a satirist and that he demonstrates a definite talent for derision. But American. Gilles Barbier Grande fontaine au chocolat, , technique mixte, x x 82 cm.

Grande fontaine au chocolat, , mixed media, Kiki Picasso Au final on ira tous au bal, , acrylique sur toile, ensemble de 20 peintures, dimensions variables. Au final on ira tous au bal, , acrylic on canvas, group of 20 paintings, varying dimensions. Steve Gianakos She was best viewed from a distance, , technique mixte sur papier, 63 x 52 cm. She was best viewed from a distance, , mixed media on paper, Party dress, , mixed media on paper, Encore un sujet pour la psychanalyse! Il est aussi cofondateur de la revue Switch on paper.

But deep down, what emerges from these hybrid references is a form of very French bourgeois classicism, crossed with fantasised eroticism, warped conventions and narrowed worlds that Georges Bataille would not renounce. Strangely, there is almost nothing contemporary in this world, which is a reflection of an ancient time, made up of unsaid things and hidden feelings, specific to a society that is chic and withdrawn into itself. Perhaps therein lies an outdated image of France that Americans have concocted for themselves over several decades and which comes back to us in a kind of mirror effect?

Yet another subject for psychoanalysis! Most of these idioms are not written and are only used during rituals.

Numéros en texte intégral

But Gilles Barbier also represents a deep scientific, as well as literary science fiction and comic strip culture. An enemy of logic and definitive truths, his oeuvre is centred around principles of doubt, ambivalence and the multiplicity of meanings. His work is not defined as critical or focusing on issues, but rather as a multitude of possibilities. His humour is instead the sign of his own schizophrenia, that which multiplies him into innumerable beings as grotesque as they are ridiculous both in terms of their size and in their get-ups.

Gilles Barbier, psychoanalyst of himself? Trying to define this artist proves a challenge. We must begin by recalling that he was born and grew up in Vanuatu, whose lush vegetation, tropical and subtropical heat, humidity and exuberant forms nourish his work. How is it possible not to evoke dislocated thinking when one comes from an archipelago made.

These three examples show that a single and unique form of humour and language play does not exist, just like a predetermined French spirit does not exist. The French spirit is a complex equation that depends on multiple factors, beginning with the intentions of those who attempt to define it. In other words, the French spirit deserves the analysis of its analysis. He is co-founder of the magazine Switch on paper. Elsewhere, here, everywhere: The legacy of surrealism. Dialectical in essence, surrealism revealed itself capable of absorbing everything and its opposite.

The inexhaustible catalogue of forms and techniques incorporated into the amorphous surrealist grouping makes the identification of contemporary works escaping its influence, be it manifest or latent, improbable…. The role of surrealism in the history of modern art was nevertheless not a given.

For a long time, the canonical narrative written in New York, in the rooms of the Museum of Modern Art MoMA , before being imposed on all modern art museums, considered surrealism as some kind of anachronous aberration. The new generation of American artists grouped together under the banner of pop art did more than proclaim the heritage of mass culture, these artists literally transposed it in their works. Clearly, repressed surrealism resurfaced in American avant-garde art.

For Edward Kienholz, Claes Oldenburg, Rauschenberg and Johns, surrealism was indeed the pioneer of a breaking down of barriers between artistic hierarchies, low-. The formalism, teleology the principle of a linear, positioned development of artistic forms according to a model of Darwinian inspiration and social isolation the boundary between avant-garde and kitsch that characterised the mainstream in which modern art seemed to be summarised suddenly found itself called into question.

Terra Erotica, , ink, ink wash, pastel and stump on paperboard, 22 x 30 in. Dream Object Vise Head , , bronze, wood and steel, 47 x 54 x Smart Art Press, Santa Monica, , p. While the pop artists evolved in a world where modernist principles still ruled, Shaw carried the intuitions of Warhol and Oldenburg through to their ultimate consequences, eliminating whatever formalism, stylistic autonomy and progressist ethos that could subsist in their works.

This eclecticism nevertheless has nothing to do with a hotchpotch. This quest for anonymity echoed, once again, the history of surrealism. Magritte still constrained himself to anonymity, the artist an enthusiast of painting that was as impersonal and anonymous as the common man with whom he identified. Nothing, however, could link Shaw so closely to surrealism as the persistent interest he showed in the aspect of dream and its spells.

In the s, for Jonathan Borofsky and. Camille Henrot Personal Development 2, , bronze, 75 x 50 x 36 cm. Personal Development 2, , bronze, Poulpe, , glazed earthenware and glass tiles, 37 x 9. Pelican, , glazed earthenware, Susan Hiller, the investigation of the dream world had constituted an escape from the rationality specific to the modernist episteme. In their footsteps, at the beginning of the s, Jim Shaw undertook to graphically record and transpose his dreams. He rapidly produced some of the objects that appeared while he slept.

In so doing, he accomplished another of the great surrealist projects, aimed at undermining our trust in the objectivity of the palpable world by introducing the reality of objects that appeared in dreams. In a few rooms further along, The Trick Brain was projected. Massimiliano Giono did not fail to emphasise the insistent presence, in the works by the exhibited artists, of dolls, puppets and mannequins that had punctuated the history of surrealism.

At the very moment that these lines appear on my computer screen, a Parisian gallery sets out to show the psychological resilience lurking within the work of art. Max Ernst and Meret Oppenheim. An indefatigable explorer of the latent meanings of artworks, surrealism will never cease to appear like a multiplier of meanings. Yesterday, it was opposed to the reification that modernism imposed on images. Today, it contradicts. To counter the simplification of the images of consumption and information, surrealism, its complexity and its contradictions, has never been more necessary.

Les corps meurtris rejettent par jets de leurs orifices tous les fluides qui les composent. The piece by Annette Messager born in in Berck called La Main could be the threshold to this train of thought. Her whole oeuvre is built on this aggregation of sometimes heterogeneous elements but which, with passing time, take on an indisputable coherency. Although this artist expresses himself equally well in disciplines such as painting, sculpture, performance art and video, drawing remains the medium the most immediately connected to his own body.

It is not unusual that Toguo draws directly with his fingers without resorting to any tool. Moreover, he frequently says that drawing is a veritable extension of his body because it connects directly to his brain and his thoughts. It is the result of an unfiltered, unrepentant spontaneity. The watercolour medium perfectly embodies this fluidity. In his Purification series, the medium is one with the body, so to speak, of his subject: ink and water literally wash the figures clean of their torments and their sins. The bruised bodies reject, by spurts from their orifices, all the fluids of which they are composed.

The artist shapes the volumes by creating passages from one form to another, one member to another, sometimes forming a moulting where plant and human fuse to form a whole. Like, for example, Lovers in the Garden, in which pleasure and suffering, life and death, are inseparable. In Penitentes, the figures seem as though they have been flayed, partially stripped of their earthly body. This profound reflection on the epidermis, on the relation between surface and viscera was further developed a few years later in the Membranas series.

Composed of ink and gouache on pig intestines, it results from a strange chemistry between the organic materials here brought together in an unusual way. The motifs obtained range from the evocation of a fantastical bestiary to a curious herbarium, passing through possible references to the ink splotches of the Rorschach test. There is a great temptation, when undertaking an analysis of a private collection, to look for the man or woman behind the selected works, to determine a character, to sketch a portrait at the risk of confusing diverse aesthetic choices and inner temperament.

One can result from the other, but not necessarily. When it is a question, moreover, of broaching the way the relation to the body is particularly significant in the elements making up this collection, this temptation becomes even more legitimate because the representation of the figure may seem like the actual reflection of the collector. Let us nevertheless get beyond this lure to attempt another hypothesis: that of a collection which would be an artwork in itself and which would delineate an autonomous body, composed of fragments but forming a whole.

La Main, , gouache and watercolour on photograph laid on panel, The body is no longer just the vehicle of our emotions and sufferings, it becomes a world. The young artist weaves the thread of an unbridled narrative, often based on personal experiences. She invents words and their definition, rather reminiscent of certain surrealist protocols. This choral oeuvre bears certain similarities to a Tower of Babel whose secret bond and unity can be revealed by Picandet alone.

These mysterious creations echo the work of Henni Alftan born in in Helsinki who in his painting lays out the clues of an unknown fiction. Bodies move about in a more prosaic setting — public transport, a swimming pool — but are always fragmentary. Tight framing, similar to that in movies, captures details in close-up: hands, fingernails The only feminine face portrayed is masked by the shadow of a profile which seems masculine.

In fact, in the works that we have encountered until now, there are very few bodies whose gender is clearly defined if we exclude that of the Virgin Mary, whose child was conceived not by a body but by a spirit. Would this collection, which we have tried to determine since.

Daniel Bensaïd

For Robert Longo born in in New York , the question seems to have been heard, if we consider, at first glance, the subject in its bluntness: the tight, close-up shot of a chest with voluptuous forms. The artist produced this piece with his characteristic virtuosity and hyperrealist rendering. However, the abstract treatment he gives it infuses a doubt and an ambiguity when it comes to recognising the subject. Is it possible to condense such antagonistic intentions in a single artwork? The ceramic work by Elsa Sahal born in in Bagnolet gives a supplementary materiality to this question, thereby further enriching it.

Her small figurines in the ice cream colours of childhood hold high the banner of their gender. Genital organs are not treated like attributes but they become the personalisation of their gender. Figures in their own right, they have become Everything. Sahal shapes, with joyful freedom, creatures both monstrous and seductive, repulsive and fascinating. In her series on the puppet, she exhausts the figure of Jumping Jack, originally an articulated cardboard or wooden puppet whose arms and legs were made to move by strings.

This usually masculine character represented a harlequin with colourful patterns. The artist twists the object through a range of multiple associations. Dressent-elles des portraits? This heart-puppet has neither head nor arms but it sometimes juggles with eyeballs and embraces life to the fullest with a grimacing smile. We can interpret them in a candid and childlike way or accept their underlying cruelty. Does the solution reside in the twists and turns of childhood memories? In the series of ink wash drawings, they are accompanied by cuddly toys or playthings that frequently seem frightening.

These objects, which sometimes have a disproportionate size, mirror the. But what do these scenes tell us about the character of the individuals portrayed? Are they portraits? This body often borne along by the highly free technique of drawing and by the fluidity of materials escapes the rigidification of time. In perpetual transformation, it resists the development of any constraint that would attempt to circumscribe it in a given form. In , she was assistant curator of the Printemps de septembre festival in Toulouse.

Long-standing arrivals. These hypothetical visitors exhibition organisers, art critics, dealers or curators were often sent by another artist, more well-established and generally teaching in an art school, who recommended that they go and cast their eyes over the work, which the aforementioned artist considered promising. This system was based on word-of-mouth, the passing on of aesthetic discoveries and implicitly shared artistic values.

There has been a dramatic rise in awards, grants and diverse salons that function on a portfolio submissions principle, and the latter is now without a doubt the most popular and effective path by which artists hope to make themselves known. This increase has brought about a genuine shortcut between the studios of emerging artists and the gaze of professionals, without really making the necessary co-optation of critics and the recommendation principle.

In many cases, the visit has even totally disappeared, since it is rare that emerging artists have access to a real studio over a long period. The essential element of what he produces is the path itself. As all the aesthetics found within it are championed by critics, dealers, institution directors, curators and collectors, whose reputation is established on a local or international.

Jennyfer Grassi Fitzcarraldo, , peinture sur toile triptyque , x cm. Fitzcarraldo, , oil on canvas triptych , Henni Alftan Rush hour, , huile sur toile, 60 x 81 cm. Rush hour, , oil on canvas, The same phenomenon can be seen on the other side of this art domain, in major international gatherings, especially at fairs, where the most conceptual rubs shoulders with the most tantalising, where the most coded is shown alongside the most universal, where what some would consider the worst bad taste has equal standing with the subtlest.

The art of the present is built on a compromise that is destabilising for its detractors, who would love to be able to stick one and the same label on this apparent shambles. Unfortunately for them, this chaos of styles, mediums and figures cannot be grabbed in its entirety from either end, because it is at least as complex as the world we live in and which constantly nourishes it. To look for some logic or other, an indisputable aesthetic theory that would bring about a radical sorting — like the many manifestos that illuminated the twentieth century attempted to do — would cover only a tiny part of the art of the present, a probability among all the others, in this horizontal cohabitation of possibilities.

In fact, what we can observe is the total opposite. Alongside these practices cohabit works by artists committed to geopolitical battles: we think of the travels of Louis-Cyprien Rials or of the experiments, both sociological and dreamlike, which Mali Arun manages to express in her films. All these artists offer singular artworks, whose character and style are easily identifiable.

And yet, with each of these creators, intense. Lucie Picandet Nexus 4. Celui que je suis. Nexus 4. Inflatable ball, counterweight, electric scooter engine, chandelier, slip ring, motorcycle chain, 4, litres of air, , diam. Left to right: Les Gardiens 1, Les Gardiens 5, , scratched photographs, This talented generation, which seems to grow from coincidences, also makes shooting stars suddenly appear.

From out of nowhere, or at least not from any art school, the young artist Edgar Sarin has effected, through several exhibitions, a kind of synthesis of the many trends that now cohabit on equal terms in the contemporary aesthetic, and sketched what it may become.

With his works, which seem to extend the brilliant intensity of Joseph Beuys or Bas Jan Ader, the young artist has managed the feat of a solo exhibition at the prestigious Konrad Fischer Galerie in Germany, as well as. The influences of these new artists are themselves often a highbrow mix of international and French artists whose recognition is not always officially endorsed by the market, proof that the renewal of the gaze on the art of the past happens above all through its validity within the art scenes that follow it.


  1. The Anarchic Commune as World's Fair in Emile Zola's Travail (1);
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  3. If Love Were Oil, Id Be About a Quart Low.
  4. Del mismo autor!

Hence, we see emerging, in an environment that, on the surface, glorifies self-achievement, hypervisibility and financial success, a new ecology of our relationship to artworks borne by this generation, which is too often reproached for working on what has already been done. In launched, with Laurent Dumas, the Emerige Revelations Grant aimed at supporting emerging artists working in France. Contre la glaciation de la.